Theory of Evolution
The Origin of Woman
B.A. Hons. (York); B.Sc. (S.A.); P.G.C.E. (Lon.)
© Agnes Sam 1982
12 Turners Croft
York YO10 5EL
The world will not succeed in addressing or correcting the status of women in all societies and cultures without knowledge and understanding of the roots of women’s oppression.
A problem was brought to my attention by women who are forbidden to use contraceptives; forbidden to have an abortion; are at risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases; and who suffer rape, murder and violence.
There is no parallel in the animal kingdom for abortion and the use of contraceptives. These are activities confined to Homo sapiens.
(A) Considering sexually transmitted diseases first, I asked:
(1) Are all Mammals susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases? Or are such diseases confined to Homo sapiens? If confined to Homo sapiens what conclusion may we draw from this? (This was prior to HIV Aids.)
(B) To avoid pregnancy without contraceptives and abortion, I asked:
(2) Is there an indicator to Homo sapiens male that the female is fertile or that an ovum has been released and awaits fertilisation? Other Mammals know when the female of their species is receptive, why not H. sapiens?
(a) H. sapiens female releases one ovum a month. Survival of the species demands fertilisation of that ovum.
(b) H. sapiens male releases hundreds of spermatozoa. If the male cannot determine when the female is fertile the spermatozoa cannot fertilize the ovum. The two do not correlate.
(c) The conclusion from a single ovum and countless spermatozoa is that fertilization is random.
(d) Other Mammals do not engage in random sexual activity. For them sexual activity is for reproduction.
(C) I considered H. sapiens male violence towards H. sapiens females and asked:
(3) Are all Mammalian males violent to the females of their species or is this
Behaviour confined to H. sapiens?
(D) I then considered the normal cell and the gametes i.e. male and female cells and the behaviour of chromosomes in the normal cell during cell division and in the gametes during the process known as Meiosis when the gametes are being formed. I asked:
(4) How do the chromosomes behave during cell division and do the X and Y chromosomes behave characteristically during Meiosis? If not, what does it indicate?
(a) In Homo sapiens growth and reproduction take place through cell division. All cells divide.
(b) ‘‘Meiosis, is one form of cell division. Meiosis takes place when a cell is forming a gamete i.e. the sperm in the male or the ovum in the female.
(c) Every cell has a nucleus. Every nucleus has chromosomes. The number of chromosomes in animals differ. H. sapiens has forty-six.
(d) Chromosomes exist in pairs. H. sapiens has twenty-three pairs.
(e) These pairs are homologous.
(f) When a cell divides one of a pair of homologous chromosomes goes into each half of the newly formed nucleus.
(g) During Meiosis each chromosome finds and pairs up with its homologue. When all homologous chromosomes have paired up they line up along their entire length.
(h) When the cell divides, the paired chromosomes separate from each other. Each half of the dividing cell then receives one of the pair of homologous chromosomes.
(j) The significant chromosomes during formation of the gametes are the X and Y.
(k) H. sapiens female has two XX chromosomes. Homo sapiens male has X and Y chromosomes. The X and Y chromosomes from Homo sapiens male determines the sex of the fertilized ovum. An X chromosome from the male produces a fertilized female ovum; a Y chromosome results in a fertilized male ovum.
(l) During Meiosis the X and Y chromosomes also separate and one of each pair goes into one half of the nucleus when the cell divides.
(m) During cell division the chromosomes align with each other side by side all along their length.
(n) But the X and Y chromosomes instead of lining up side by side lengthwise, or even juxtaposed upon each other, align themselves end to end. This is uncharacteristic and unusual.
(o) It has been accepted that the Y chromosome has lost a part. With the missing part it would resemble an X chromosome. This is possible. However, the rest of the Y chromosome should meet up and align with X chromosome if they are homologous. In all other chromosomes, whatever the changes that have occurred, the pair of chromosomes still attempt to match up all along the length. Even where a chromosome has been damaged or distorted it strives to line up with its homologue.
(p) If X and Y chromosomes are not able to line up lengthwise along their entire length we may conclude that they are not homologous.
(5) What are homologous chromosomes?
(i) Homologous chromosomes share the same genetic material.
(ii) Homologous chromosomes are descended from the same antecedent. i.e. they have the same ancestor.
(iii) If X and Y are not homologous we may conclude they do not share the same genetic material.
(iv) If X and Y are not homologous we may conclude they are not descended from the same antecedent.
Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel laid the foundation for the study of evolution and genetics. The study of H. sapiens focussed on how the species came to walk upright, development of the hands as an implement for holding tools, development of the brain, size of the brain case, speech, problem solving, how human intelligence evolved. Archaeologists search for links between prehistoric man and Pro-Magnum. Study of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and the human genome focussed on how these affect the development of H. sapiens.
However, these studies assume that the male and female evolved as a single unit, at the same rate, in unison, in parallel lines, congruently, and continuously, and in the same direction.
I disagree with this.
The theory I am proposing is that the male and female of the species commonly referred to as H. sapiens do not share a common ancestor. The female is descended from one ancestor the male from another. At some period they came into contact and that accounts for the uncharacteristic behaviour of the X and Y chromosome during Meiosis.
We may speculate that the male counterpart of the present female is extinct. And the female counterpart of the present male may also be extinct. However, it is possible that the male counterpart did not rape and was not violent towards the female of its species. The male who lives today may have exterminated through violent methods the male counterpart of the female who lives today.
Women have an origin that is separate and distinct from the origin of men. At some stage in prehistory, the male who is presently living destroyed the male of our species.
The theory I am proposing that the Origin of Women separate and distinct from the Origin of Men, is based on the following:
(1) There is no signal to the male that an ovum has been released from the ovary of the female.
(2) The female’s fertility is safeguarded from the male. Because the male has no indicator of the female’s fertility the chances of impregnation are decreased.
(3) A female produces one ovum, once a month that is fertile for a few days. The male produces hundreds of spermatozoa daily.
(4) If there are no sexually transmitted diseases in the animal kingdom one may conclude that reproduction is not intended to take place.
(5) The behaviour of X and Y chromosome during Meiosis suggests that the X and Y chromosome are not homologous chromosomes.
(6) If X and Y chromosomes are not homologous we may conclude that X and Y chromosomes do not share the same genetic material.
(7) If X and Y chromosomes do not share the same genetic material we may conclude they do not arise from the same antecedents.
(8) We may conclude that the X chromosome has descended from one ancestor and the Y chromosome has descended from another.
The theory connects the roots of women’s oppression to the origins of women. The theory on the origins of women is one explanation for the oppression of women by men.
© Agnes Sam 1982.